In this work we have addressed some open questions on the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of closed one-dimensional quantum systems. In recent years, advances in experimental techniques have revitalized the theoretical research in condensed matter physics and quantum optics. We have treated three different subjects using both numerical and analytical techniques. As far as the numerical techniques are concerned, we have used essentially exact diagonalization methods, the adaptive time-dependent density-matrix renormalization-group algorithm (t-DMRG) and the Lanczos algorithm. At first, we studied the adiabatic quantum dynamics of a quantum system close to a critical point. We have demonstrated that the presence of a confining potential strongly affects the scaling properties of the dynamical observables near the quantum critical point. The mean excitation density and the energy excess, after the crossing of the critical point, follow an algebraic law as a function of the sweeping rate with an exponent that depends on the space-time properties of the potential. After that, we have studied the behavior of ultra-cold bosons in a tilted optical lattice. Starting with the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian, in the limit of Hard-Core bosons, we have developed a hydrodynamic theory that exactly reproduces the temporal evolution of some of the observables of the system. In particular, it was observed that part of the boson density remains trapped, and oscillates with a frequency that depends on the slope of the potential, whereas the remaining packet part is expelled out of the ramp. We have also analyzed the dynamics of the Bose-Hubbard model using the t-DMRG algorithm and the Lanczos algorithm. In this way we have highlighted the role of the non-integrability of the model on its dynamical behavior. Finally, we have addressed the issue of thermalization in an extended quantum system. Starting from quite general considerations, we have introduced the notion of out-of-equilibrium temperature profile in a chain of Hard-Core bosons. We have analyzed the dynamics of the temperature profile and especially its scaling properties. |